Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) in Dogs: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Management


Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) is a degenerative eye disorder that affects numerous dog breeds, leading to gradual vision loss and, in some cases, eventual blindness. This article aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of Progressive Retinal Atrophy in dogs, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and available management options to help dog owners navigate this condition and provide the best care for their furry friends.

1. What is Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)?

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) refers to a group of hereditary eye conditions that cause the gradual degeneration of the retina – the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye. Over time, this degeneration leads to progressive vision loss and can eventually result in complete blindness. PRA affects dogs of various breeds and typically starts to manifest in adulthood or as they age.

2. Causes of Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)

PRA is primarily a genetic condition caused by mutations in specific genes responsible for retinal function. The inheritance pattern can vary depending on the breed, and dogs with affected parents have a higher risk of developing the disease. Some breeds are more predisposed to certain types of PRA, while others have genetic tests available to identify carriers and prevent breeding affected dogs.

3. Symptoms of Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)

Recognizing the symptoms of Progressive Retinal Atrophy is essential for early detection and intervention. Common signs of PRA in dogs include:

  • Night Blindness: Dogs with PRA often experience difficulty seeing in low-light conditions or at night.
  • Decreased Vision: As the disease progresses, dogs may demonstrate a reduced ability to navigate their surroundings and may become hesitant or bump into objects.
  • Pupil Abnormalities: Changes in the appearance of the pupils, such as increased dilation or irregularities, can be observed in some cases.
  • Clumsiness: Affected dogs may display increased clumsiness or reluctance to participate in activities that require good vision.

4. Diagnosis of Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)

If you suspect your dog may have Progressive Retinal Atrophy or notice any of the mentioned symptoms, it is crucial to seek veterinary evaluation. The diagnosis of PRA typically involves:

  • Ophthalmic Examination: A veterinary ophthalmologist will conduct a comprehensive eye exam to assess the retina’s health and detect any abnormalities.
  • Genetic Testing: In some breeds with known genetic mutations causing PRA, DNA testing can confirm the presence of these mutations and assess the dog’s risk of developing the disease.

5. Management and Support for Dogs with Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)

While there is currently no cure for PRA, there are several ways to support dogs affected by the condition and help them maintain a good quality of life:

  • Environmental Adaptations: Making the home environment safe and familiar for a visually impaired dog by keeping furniture and objects in fixed positions can minimize accidents.
  • Consistency and Routine: Maintaining a consistent daily routine can help visually impaired dogs feel more secure and confident.
  • Avoiding Sudden Changes: Preventing sudden changes in the environment can reduce stress and anxiety for dogs with reduced vision.
  • Training and Command Adaptation: Modifying training techniques and using auditory or tactile cues can help guide visually impaired dogs.
  • Regular Check-ups: Regular veterinary check-ups are essential to monitor the progression of the disease and address any additional eye health concerns.


Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) can be a challenging condition for both dogs and their owners, but with early detection and appropriate management, affected dogs can adapt and lead fulfilling lives. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and available management options is crucial for providing the best possible care for dogs with PRA. If you suspect your dog has PRA or notice any signs of vision loss, consult a qualified veterinarian or ophthalmologist to determine the most suitable support and care for your beloved canine companion.